According to an estimate, the diabetic population in India can grow up to 34.3 million by 2045. Yes, you read it correctly; India is second world capital for diabetes!
Diabetes is also known as sugar that happens when your body becomes insufficient in using the glucose (sugar) present in its cells for producing energy. In simple words, when sugar level in the body goes beyond the normal range, the person develops diabetes.
Poorly controlled diabetes can damage body organs such as the kidney, heart, eyes and nerves. Therefore, it’s necessary to measure your blood sugar level by getting suitable tests done. Here’s the list of diabetes test, procedure, and their estimated cost in India.
What are the Different Types of Diabetes?
Before getting diabetic tests done, knowing what type of diabetic patient you are is crucial. There are three types of diabetes that is prevalent in India:
- Type-1 Diabetes
- Type-2 Diabetes
- Gestational Diabetes
Let’s learn more about the main types of diabetes.
Type-1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which your immune system mistakenly damages healthy cells in the insulin-producing pancreas. The damage becomes permanent and remains with you for lifetime.
The cause for Type-1 is still not clear; that’s a bummer! However, genetics play an essential role. It is most prevalent in children and young adults, although age doesn’t matter in Type-1 diabetics.
Type-2 diabetes is more likely to be caused due to the demand-supply gap. It starts when your body can’t utilize insulin efficiently. It encourages pancreas to produce more insulin to cover the demand. However, when demand become too high, insulin production falls leading to increase in blood glucose level.
Genetics, lifestyle, age, and diet play an essential role in the insulin resistance situation that causes Type-2 diabetes. It is most prevalent in middle-aged and older people. There are more chances that you can also have Type-2 diabetes when you get old.
Facts: About 90-95% of diabetic people have Type-2 diabetes.
Prediabetic is nothing but a situation when your glucose numbers slightly go beyond the normal range but do not come between the Type-2 diabetes range. However, if left untreated,then it is likely to become Type-2 in no time.
As the name suggests, gestational diabetes occurs only during pregnancy. During pregnancy, the body produces insulin-blocking hormones, which causes glucose levels to rise.
Usually, it goes away; however, there are high chances of getting Type-2 diabetes.
Facts: 10% of pregnant women get gestational diabetes during their pregnancy period.
Although types are different, there are some common symptoms of diabetes:
- Frequent thirst
- Increase in urination
- Increased hunger
- Blurry vision
- Slow healing of cuts
- Mood changes
People having these symptoms should go to a doctor and diagnose themselves. Different tests are done for different types of diabetes. Also, anyone can go for a diabetes test especially, if you are overweight, 40+ years, or have a family history.
Normal Range of Blood Glucose Level
The normal range of diabetic and non-diabetic person is different. If you are doing a diabetes test at your home, then it’s better to check the below-given table to know whether your blood sugar level is normal or not. So, let’s see.
|Conditions||Fasting Range||Post Meal Range||Before Exercise Range||Bed Time Range|
|Non-Diabetic||72-99||70-130||At least 100||100-140|
|Type-1 Diabetic||80-130||Less than 180||100-250||90-150|
|Type-2 Diabetic||70-130||Less than 180||150-300||90-150|
- Values are in mg/dL units
- Post-meal equals 2 hrs after eating a meal.
- If your blood sugar level is above 250 before exercising, you should have some light snacks before a workout.
List of Tests for Diabetes
It may take time for the symptoms of different types to appear. But a doctor can detect it by performing various diabetes tests. There are many; however, the most common are FPGT, RPGT, and A1c.
Here we have divided the tests into types of diabetes they detect. Now, without further ado, let’s take a look at diabetes tests and their procedures.
Tests for Type-2 Diabetes
Standard tests done to diagnose Type-2 diabetes are following:
Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test:
Fasting Plasma Glucose Test is a blood test that requires a person to have no food or drink for at least 8 hours.
Procedure: A blood sample is collected either from the arm or fingertip (aka finger-stick test) and then sent to the lab for analysis.
Keep in Mind
While giving a blood sample, crossing your legs can tense your body that can raise the stress leading to high sugar level. Also, it makes taking out blood more complex.
Normal Range: 70-99 mg/dL is the normal range in FPG Test.
|Fasting Plasma Glucose Test|
|Over 126 mg/dL||Diabetes|
|Under 55 mg/dL||Dangerously low|
Random Plasma Glucose (RPG) Test:
Random Plasma Glucose Test is the same as FPGT; the only difference is that you are not required to fast. A doctor generally prescribes RPGT when weight loss, vision loss (partial), or frequent urination.
Procedure: It is a quick test that doctors carried out in their clinic. As it is a blood test, a blood sample is required, taken from your finger to find out the glucose level in your body.
Normal Range:Below 200 mg/dL is the normal range in the RPG test.
|Random Plasma Glucose Test|
|Below 200 mg/dL||Normal|
|Above 200 mg/dL||Diabetes|
Haemoglobin A1c Test:
It is also known as HbA1c and glycated hemoglobin test. As the name suggests, it measures the bond of glucose molecules to hemoglobin (a component of Red Blood Cells).
The Haemoglobin A1c Test results indicate your average blood sugar level over 3 months. It also does not require you fast before giving a blood sample.
According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), if HbA1c is above 5.7%, there is a consistent and unusually high amount of glucose in the blood.
Procedure: The procedure is the same as other tests.
Normal Range: HbA1c below 5.7% is normal.
Below is conversion of HbA1c level (in %) into Blood Sugar levels(in mg/dL)
|HbA1c and Blood Sugar Level|
Tests for Type-1 Diabetes
If a doctor suspects Type-1 diabetes, then, first of all, he will check for symptoms such as fatigue and flu-like symptoms. Then, they will go further with any of the following tests:
The pancreas produces insulin and C-peptide together. If your C-peptide count is lower than normal, then your sugar level is also low.
C-peptide is simply a blood test for which a doctor may ask you to do fasting (both food and water) for about 8 hours.
Procedure: It requires a blood sample (0.8 ml) taken by the doctor from a vein either from the arm or back of your hand. Then it is collected in the test tube and sent to the lab for analysis.
Normal Range: Normal range in C-peptide tide is 0.8-3.1 ng/ml. It is the same regardless of gender and age.
This test checks the presence of a protein that attacks and destroys insulin produced in your body.
Procedure: It also requires a blood sample after a minimum 8 hour overnight fasting status.
|More than 18 U/ml||Positive|
|Less than 12 U/ml||Negative|
(Applied to all ages)
Note: FPGT and RPGT are also get done to diagnose Type-1 diabetes; however, the A1c test is not helpful for type-1.
Tests for Gestational Diabetes
Getting tests done for gestational diabetes is critical as it can affect both mother and child in the womb. Following tests are done to check gestational diabetes:
Glucose Challenge Test:
The Glucose Challenge Test gets primarily done between 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. It is the first test suggested to screen gestational diabetes. Before going for Glucose Challenge Test, you can drink and eat whatever you want.
Procedure: It is done in two steps:
- When you arrive at health care, you have to drink 148 ml (approx.) of a syrupy sugar solution.
- Then 1 hour later, a blood sample will be taken from your vein and sent to the lab for analysis.
Normal Range: Blood sugar level below 140 mg/dL is normal.
|Glucose Challenge Test|
|Less than 140 mg/dL||Normal|
|More than 140 mg/dL||Diabetes|
Note: Some clinics use 130 mg/dL as borderline.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test:
To confirm the Glucose Challenge Test results, doctors recommend Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. But you have to fast for at least 8 hours to get this test done.
Procedure: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test also gets done in the same two steps. However, instead of 148 ml, you have to drink 237 ml of a glucose solution that contains100 grams of sugar.
Then, your blood glucose level will be tested again in 1, 2, and 3 hours after drinking the solution.
Normal Range: For 3-hour test,
One hour: Below 180 mg/dL is the normal sugar level
Two hours: Below 155 mg/dL is the normal sugar level
Three hours: Below 140 mg/dL is the normal sugar level
Estimate Costs of Diabetes Test in India
All the diabetes tests in India cost less than Rs. 3000 so that lower-class people can also afford them. Let’s have a look at the estimated costs of the above-given Diabetes tests in India.
|Diabetes Test||Average Cost|
|Fasting Plasma Glucose Test||75-100 INR|
|Random Plasma Glucose Test||80-150 INR|
|Insulin Autoantibodies||1500-2200 INR|
|Oral Glucose Tolerance Test||250-1200 INR|
Are you someone who doesn’t want to go to hospitals always to get their tests done? Here’s some piece of great news! You can carry out blood glucose tests at your home with the help of testing kits. Testing kits are easy to use with all the instructions written in a catalog.
Here’re two types of blood glucose testing kits available at medical shops.
Blood Sugar Testing: The key components of blood sugar testing kits are:
- A machine that pours out blood from the finger
- Test strips to collect the blood
- A device called a glucometer evaluates the blood sample and gives out the results.
You will get your result in 20-30 seconds. No need to go out and wait for results; how convenient!
Urine Ketone Testing:
This is a different type of testing kit. It basically checks the presence of Ketone through a urine sample. If there are Ketone present, then it indicates that your body has too low insulin.
It involves a urine sample, then inserts the strips provided with the kit in the urine. If ketone levels are high or moderate, you should go to a doctor for further check-ups and treatment.
Note: Before buying kits, make sure to check it with a doctor or in the medical shop itself so that you know whether blood sugar testing kits are working right or not.
Diabetes is a chronic disease that needs lifetime attention and treatment. If you are not managing diabetes, then man! You are inviting big trouble for yourself. A single disease can cause multiple diseases in just few years if not taken care off!
So, that’s all for today, guys. You can learn more with the links provided. Even if you have a little doubt, we suggest you go to a doctor for further check-ups and treatment.
Whether you want to gain muscle sustainably, lose weight, or do both—Mirganshi is the person you reach out to! She has a B.Sc in Nutrition and Dietetics from Lovely Professional University (LPU) and certification from Gold’s Gym Fitness Institute (GGFI). She grew up and completed her schooling in Jaipur, Rajasthan back in the early 2000s. Currently, she helps hundreds of individuals in correcting their diets, lifestyle habits, and physical health.
She currently lives with her husband in Navi Mumbai, and they have been happily married since 2017. She is also a fitness freak herself and has completed several marathons like TATA Mumbai Marathon, Pinkathon, and more! In her free time, she likes to listen to music while writing her journal. Discipline is her best friend, and she ensures to impart this virtue in her clientele as well.
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